There is a jargon in the particle industry:everything is particle. Looking at all walks of life, it’s really hard to find a field that doesn’t deal with particles. Even in industries that seemingly have nothing to do with particles, people have been dealing with granular materials. For example, the keyboard used by the coder is made of plastic particles, and the phosphor of the display is itself particles; For another example, the paper and ink used by music composers are also related to particles.
Almost all materials, from raw materials to finished products, are in granular state at one stage. Due to the diversity and polydispersity of granular materials, particles are even called the fifth state of matter. The characterization of physical properties of granular materials is also different from other chemical analysis and physical measurement.
Particles are closely related to material quality. For example, the particle size of chocolate needs to be consistent with the distance between taste buds, the density of flavor droplets in Coca Cola must be consistent with that of water, the hardness and particle size of calcium carbonate in toothpaste should be appropriate, and the size and solubility of regularly released fertilizer particles have certain specifications.
How to characterize particles?
Technical overview:There are hundreds of particle characterization techniques, and there were more than 400 particle size measurements alone. There are more than ten kinds of techniques that are still widely used to characterize particle size, quantity, surface characteristics and internal pore size. These technologies have a wide range of daily applications, such as the research and development process of new materials, the quality control of production process, or the measurement indicators of business and trade. In China alone, it is estimated that thousands or even tens of thousands of particle characterization instruments are newly installed every year.
Insufficient:Particle characterization is such an important field for all walks of life, but it is rarely involved in the existing higher education, and even graduate courses that specialize in teaching basic knowledge related to these technologies are rare, and there are few Chinese books focusing on these technologies.
present situation:This practice is divorced from education, resulting in incomplete professional knowledge system and wrong application practice of many workers involved in particle characterization in their work, such as when measuring the particle size of nanoparticles with dynamic light scattering or measuring the particle surface potential with electrophoretic light scattering, diluting samples with pure water, or dispersing drug crystals with high-pressure gas when measuring particle size with laser particle size method.
Publication of Monographs in the field of granular materials
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In order to fill the above gaps and provide popular reading materials for the majority of users of particle characterization technology, the author carefully selected six particle characterization technologies that are most widely used today, fromHistorical origin, physical principles, mathematical basis, instrument structure, operating points, data processing interpretationAnd so on.
The six methods areOptical counting method, laser particle size method, optical image analysis method, particle tracking analysis method, dynamic light scattering method, electrophoresis light scattering methodThey are all related to the interaction between light and particles.
The systematic study of the interaction between light and particles began with the doctoral thesis of Peter Debye, the Nobel Prize winner in chemistry in 1936 (the first doctoral student of Arnold Sommerfeld, a student of mathematician David Hilbert), in 1908.
As the foreshadowing knowledge and auxiliary information of these technologies, sample preparation in particle characterization, basic data statistical knowledge, the basic principle of light scattering in particle characterization, almost all other commonly used particle characterization technologies, and the standardization status of these technologies are also introduced in a special chapter.
This is a second edition monograph that systematically introduces contemporary particle characterization techniques.
This book can be used as a reference for teachers, undergraduates, postgraduates, scientists, technical experts and instrument operators who want to understand and master contemporary particle characterization technology, and provide them with a solid theoretical basis for particle characterization and rich practical reference.
Readers can not only learn the physical basis of these technologies and the working principle of the instrument, but also avoid common mistakes in the application process by understanding the actual operation and practical details of each technology, and constantly improve the accuracy of instrument operation, measurement data and repeated measurement.
As a recommended reading material for entering the field of particle characterization technology, this book not only collects the rich knowledge and data accumulated by the author over the years, but also cites thousands of Chinese and foreign literatures. These documents spanning more than two centuries (1809-2021), in addition to the important papers related to the initial invention of this technology and milestones, there are also a large number of reports related to the latest trends and development of these technologies, which provide some directions and ways for particle people who are interested in further exploring and developing particle characterization technology and becoming a connecting link between the past and the future.
About the author
Author Xu Renliang
Author professional backview：In the past half century, under the guidance of Zhu Pengnian, a close disciple of Debai, and Wernicke, a contemporary master of fluorescent colloidal chemistry, the author Xu Renliang not only carried out research on polymer physics and colloidal chemistry, but also set up an all angle dynamic and static light scattering instrument as a starting point, and dabbled in many fields of particle characterization, such as nanosecond correlators, convergence analysis of Mie theory, technical discussion of Laplace transform, optical fiber frequency shifters, etc, He invented several patents on the method of stripping Brownian motion from electrophoretic light scattering measurement to obtain the true surface charge distribution curve and particle characterization, which filled the gap in the experimental verification of the relationship between the Debye length of particles in water and the thickness of hydration layer. Some of these papers have been cited continuously for decades. After entering the first dynamic light scattering instrument production company in the United States, the author has successively held various major positions in technology, business and management in three major particle characterization instrument companies around the world, and has first-hand perceptual knowledge and comprehensive understanding of the design, testing, production and application of various instruments; In the past 30 years, the author has participated in the formulation of a number of international standards, American national standards and Chinese national standards for particle characterization technology, and always pays attention to the latest development in this field.
Chapter 1 particle system and particle characterization/001
1.1 particles and particle systems/001
1.2 sample preparation/006
1.3 particle measurement data and statistical analysis/018
第2章 光散射的理论背view / 035
2.1 light scattering phenomenon and technology/035
2.2 key points of light scattering theory/039
2.3 other optical technology/059
Chapter 3 optical counting/081
3.2 instrument structure/083
3.3 measurement results and data analysis/098
Chapter 4 laser particle size method/113
4.3 data collection and analysis/141
4.4 measurement accuracy and accuracy/153
Chapter 5 optical image analysis/169
5.2 image acquisition/171
5.3 image analysis/181
5.4 particle shape characterization/187
5.5 instrument setup, calibration and verification/193
Chapter 6 particle tracking analysis/199
6.2 instruments and measurement parameters/200
6.3 samples and data/208
6.4 other considerations for particle tracking analysis/217
Chapter 7 dynamic light scattering method/221
7.2 instrument composition/223
7.3 data analysis/241
7.4 measuring concentrated suspension/263
Chapter 8 electrophoretic light scattering method/281
8.2 zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility/282
8.3 electrophoresis light scattering instrument/289
8.4 data analysis/306
8.5 phase analysis light scattering/315
Chapter 9 standardization of particle characterization/323
9.1 text standard/324
9.2 reference materials, reference materials and standard samples/332
9.3 Standardization Organization/345
Chapter 10 overview of other particle characterization techniques/351
10.1 resistance method:counting and particle size/351
10.2 sedimentation method:particle size/358
10.3 screening method:classification and particle size/361
10.4 chromatographic method:separation and particle size/363
10.5 ultrasonic analysis/366
10.6 gas physical adsorption:powder surface area and pore size/370
10.7 mercury intrusion method:pore size analysis/374
10.8 air infiltration method:average particle size/375
10.9 capillary flow pore size analysis:through hole diameter/375
10.10 gas replacement specific gravity method:density/377
10.11 nuclear magnetic resonance technology/378
10.12 streaming potential measurement:zeta potential/379
10.13 resonance mass measurement:counting and particle size/380
10.14 submicron aerosol determination:count and particle size/381
10.15 summary of particle characterization technology/381
Appendix 1 symbols/392
Appendix 2 sphere scattering function of Mie theory/395
Appendix 3 physical constants of common liquids/397
Appendix 4 common dispersants/402
Appendix 5 liquid and dispersant for dispersing some powder materials/404