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The government procurement law was revised again for comments, and the 25 point difference was seen!

On July 15, the Ministry of Finance released a new version of the government procurement law of the people’s Republic of China (Draft for comments on the revised draft) (hereinafter referred to as the draft for comments). How much is the draft for comments different from the 2003 version of the government procurement law?

  1. The procurement body is expanded to public welfare central enterprises

  Government Procurement LawArticle 2 the term”government procurement” as used in this Law refers to the use of financial funds by state organs, institutions and organizations at all levels to purchase goods, projects and services within the centralized procurement catalogue formulated according to law or above the procurement quota standard.

  Opinion draftArticle 2:for the purposes of this law, the term”government procurement” refers to the acts of state organs, institutions, organizations and other procuring entities at all levels, in order to perform their duties or provide public services, using financial funds or other state-owned assets to obtain goods, projects and services by contract, including purchase, leasing, entrustment, government and social capital cooperation, etc.

  这个“其他采购实体”是指什么呢?Opinion draft12条有明确解读;本法所称其他采购实体是指为实现公共目的,从事公用事业,运营公共基础设施或者公共服务网络的公益性国有企业。适用本法的其他采购实体及其具体采购范围,由国务院确定。

  commentThis means that the procurement of public utilities such as railways, energy and communications by central enterprises will be included in government procurement.

 2. The power to formulate the procurement catalogue belongs to the central government

  Government Procurement LawArticle 7:government procurement shall combine centralized procurement with decentralized procurement. The scope of centralized procurement shall be determined by the catalogue of centralized procurement published by the people’s government at or above the provincial level.

For government procurement projects under the central budget, the centralized procurement catalogue shall be determined and published by the State Council; For government procurement projects under local budgets, the centralized procurement catalogue shall be determined and published by the people’s governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government or their authorized institutions.

  Opinion draftArticle 6 [procurement organization form and scope of centralized procurement] government procurement shall combine centralized procurement with decentralized procurement. The standards for technology and services shall be unified, and the items commonly used by purchasers shall be included in the centralized procurement catalogue. The catalogue of centralized procurement shall be determined and published by the State Council. Government procurement projects included in the catalogue of centralized procurement shall be subject to centralized procurement.

  comment:in the future, there will be no centralized procurement catalogue for local government procurement, and the country will share the same catalogue

 3. The government procurement quota standard is determined by the central government

  Government Procurement LawArticle 8 the government procurement quota standard, which belongs to the government procurement items of the central budget, shall be determined and promulgated by the State Council; Government procurement projects under the local budget shall be determined and announced by the people’s governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government or their authorized institutions.

  Opinion draftArticle 7 [government procurement quota standard] government procurement projects shall be subject to quota standard management. The government procurement quota standard shall be determined and promulgated by the State Council.

  comment:the national government procurement quota standard will be unified.

 4:government procurement is no longer limited to”paid”

  Government Procurement LawArticle 2:the term”procurement” as used in this Law refers to the acquisition of goods, projects and services with compensation by contract, including purchase, lease, entrustment, employment, etc.

  Opinion draftFor the purposes of this law, the term”government procurement” refers to the acts of state organs, institutions, organizations and other purchasing entities at all levels, in order to perform their duties or provide public services, using financial funds or other state-owned assets to obtain goods, projects and services by contract, including purchase, lease, entrustment, government and social capital cooperation, etc.

  commentIn recent years, in emerging industries such as cloud computing, there are often cases of zero yuan winning the bid in government procurement. For some projects, enterprises have to pay franchise fees instead of winning the bid. According to the original law, it is illegal, and the exposure draft gives these emerging procurement modes legal status.

  5. The agency is no longer a”party” of government procurement

  Government Procurement LawArticle 14 the parties to government procurement refer to all kinds of subjects that enjoy rights and assume obligations in government procurement activities, including purchasers, suppliers and procurement agencies.

  Opinion draftArticle 11:parties to government procurement refer to purchasers and suppliers. Other participants include procurement agencies entrusted by the purchaser, government procurement review experts, professional consultants, and third parties related to procurement activities.

  comment:if the agency loses the identity of”party” in government procurement, it will strengthen the subject identity of the purchaser.

 6. Suppliers are no longer required to have”good business reputation”

  Government Procurement LawArticle 22 suppliers participating in government procurement activities shall meet the following conditions:

(1) having the ability to bear civil liability independently;

(2) having a good business reputation and a sound financial and accounting system;

(3) having the necessary equipment and professional technical ability to perform the contract;

(4) having a good record of paying taxes and social security funds according to law;

(5) there is no major illegal record in business activities within three years before participating in government procurement activities;

(6) other conditions stipulated by laws and administrative regulations.

  Opinion draftArticle 14:under any of the following circumstances, suppliers shall not participate in government procurement activities. Unless otherwise provided by laws, administrative regulations and relevant national regulations:

(1) being declared bankrupt;

(2) failing to pay taxes or social insurance premiums;

(3) being restricted or prohibited from participating in government procurement activities due to illegal acts;

(4) having a major illegal record in business activities within three years before participating in government procurement activities.

  comment:Opinion draft删除了对供应商的一些模棱两可不好量化的要求,比如具有良好的商业信誉和健全的财务会计制度。

 7. Reduced requirements of the supplier Consortium

  Government Procurement LawArticle 24 stipulates that”all suppliers participating in the consortium shall meet the conditions specified in Article 22 of this Law”.

  Opinion draftArticle 16 stipulates that”if a consortium participates in government procurement, the consortium shall meet all the requirements of the procurement project”.

  comment:Opinion draft不再要求每一个成员都满足资格条件、资质要求,只需联合体满足采购项目的全部要求即可,这给了大量小微企业参与政府采购的机会。

 8. Centralized procurement agencies can work across regions

  Government Procurement LawArticle 17 stipulates that a centralized procurement institution is a legal person of a non-profit institution established by the people’s government at or above the county level according to the needs of organizing centralized procurement of government procurement projects at the same level.

  Opinion draftArticle 18 stipulates that the entrustment of a centralized procurement agency to purchase business may not be restricted by the administrative level and department subordination.

  comment:Opinion draft鼓励集中采购机构展开跨级别、跨地域竞争机制。

 9. From”domestic products” to”domestic industries”

  Government Procurement LawArticle 10:government procurement shall purchase domestic goods, projects and services.

  Opinion draftArticle 23 [supporting domestic industries] except for those that cannot be obtained within the territory of China or cannot be obtained with reasonable commercial conditions, government procurement shall purchase domestic goods, projects and services. Products produced in China that meet the specified value-added ratio and other conditions shall enjoy evaluation preferences in government procurement activities. The definition of domestic goods, projects and services shall be implemented in accordance with the relevant provisions of the State Council.

  comment:Opinion draft第一次提出“本国产业”附加值比例这两个概念,这意味着核心部件国产化率越高的产品越有竞争优势。

 10. Add the content of maintaining national security

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draftArticle 24 [safeguarding national security] government procurement shall implement national security requirements, and implement laws and regulations related to national security, such as product standards, supplier qualification conditions, intellectual property rights, information release and data management. For procurement projects involving state secrets, methods and procedures other than open competition shall be adopted.

The state establishes a security review system for government procurement to conduct security reviews of government procurement activities that may affect national security.

  commentThe 2003 version of the government procurement law was formulated at the beginning of the network era, and e-government has just started, so there is no clear provision for information security, but 20 years later, information security is the top priority, and it is imperative for the country to establish a government procurement security review system.

  11. Increase policy functions to support scientific and technological innovation

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draftArticle 25 [supporting scientific and technological innovation] government procurement shall support the application of scientific and technological innovation, give play to the guiding role of the government procurement market, promote the deep integration of industry, University, research and application, and promote the research, development and application of innovative products.

  comment:the measures for the administration of independent innovation government procurement was issued in 2010 and abolished in 2011. The new government procurement law mentions innovation again, and it is likely to re formulate measures to support independent innovation.

 12. From environmental protection to green and low-carbon circular development

  Government Procurement LawArticle 9 government procurement should help to achieve the goals of the state’s economic and social development policies, including protecting the environment, supporting underdeveloped areas and ethnic minority areas, and promoting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  Opinion draftArticle 26 [promoting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises] government procurement shall promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and increase the contract share of small and medium-sized enterprises in government procurement.

Welfare units for the disabled, veterans enterprises and other suppliers that need support according to regulations can be regarded as small and micro enterprises to enjoy the government procurement support policy.

Article 27 [supporting green development] government procurement shall promote the development of green and low-carbon recycling, implement relevant national green standards, and promote the application of green products and related green services and green infrastructure such as environmental protection, energy conservation, water conservation, recycling, low-carbon, renewable and organic.

  comment:the concept of supporting small and medium-sized enterprises and green environmental protection is clearer.

  13. Add the concept of”purchase valuation”

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draftArticle 33 [estimated procurement value and maximum procurement price] the estimated procurement value is the maximum estimated total value of the procurement contract. The purchaser shall estimate the purchase value according to the actual demand and in combination with market research and historical transaction conditions. The estimated value of innovative procurement should include the R & D, production, transformation and subsequent procurement costs of innovative products at all stages.

The purchaser can reasonably set the maximum purchase price within the estimated purchase value.

  comment:Opinion draft提出了采购估算价值的概念,并且允许以此设定最高限价。

 14. Add the best quality bid evaluation method

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draftArticle 46 [evaluation method and application] evaluation of government procurement方法分为最低评审价法、综合评分法和最优质量法。

  最优质量法,是指竞标文件满足采购文件全部实质性要求,价格已定,按照质量因素的量化指标评审得分由高到低排序确定中标、成交、入围供应商的评审方法。执行政府定价或者对质量有特殊要求的采购,可以采用最优质量法。

  采购人可以在采购文件中规定根据全生命周期成本以及后续专用耗材、升级服务成本等,对供应商报价或者评审得分进行修正。

  comment:这是一个新的评分法,加入了一个新的概念,全生命周期成本,这使得采购不仅只评价采购成本,还考虑使用成本。

  15、业绩可以用于评审

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draft:第四十七条【评审因素及适用】设计咨询服务、大型基础设施工程以及创新采购、政府和社会资本合作等项目,需要考虑供应商履约能力中的从业经验的,可以将业绩要求作为评审因素,但是采购人不得提出特定项目的业绩要求。

  comment:业绩纳入评审因素造成的质疑和投诉很多,Opinion draft确定了何种情况下可以应用业绩评审。

  16、信息化采购强制分包

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draft:第三十八条规定:采购人实施信息化项目,对信息基础设施、应用系统、安全防护等建设内容,进行专业分类或者分包采购。

  comment:这就要求:信息化项目对信息基础设施、应用系统、安全防护不可以一家独揽,应当分包采购,避免政府被一家供应商捆绑,处于不利地位。

  17、低于三家也可开标

  Government Procurement Law:第三十六条 在招标采购中,出现下列情形之一的,应予废标::(一)符合专业条件的供应商或者对招标文件作实质响应的供应商不足三家的;……

  Opinion draft:第四十四条【竞标供应商数量】采用竞争性方式采购的,竞标供应商和合格标均不得少于三家。但是实行公开竞争后,竞标供应商或者合格标只有两家或者一家,采购文件没有不合理条款,且采购程序符合规定的,可以继续开展采购活动。

  comment:这一规定实际上是解决采购实践中同一项目屡次采购始终都是只有两家供应商,项目无法进行的困局。

  18、评标委员会可以全部由采购人代表构成

  《87号令》:47条评标委员会由采购人代表和评审专家组成,成员人数应当为5人以上单数,其中评审专家不得少于成员总数的三分之二。

  Opinion draft:第四十八条第二款规定:评审委员会可以全部由采购人代表组成,也可以由采购人代表和政府采购评审专家共同组成。

  comment:这样的规定增加采购人组建评审委员会的自主权,落实采购人的主体责任,但是评标专家的价值被削弱。

  19、等标期可以缩短到10天

  Government Procurement Law:第三十五条 货物和服务项目实行招标方式采购的,自招标文件开始发出之日起至投标人提交投标文件截止之日止,不得少于二十日。

  Opinion draft:自采购文件开始发出之日起至竞标人提交竞标文件截止之日止,一般不得少于二十日。符合特殊情形的,可以适当缩短等标期,但不得少于十日。采用询价方式采购的,等标期不得少于三个工作日。

  comment:提高了采购人的权限,有助于提高采购效率。

  20、新增创新采购

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draft:第三十七条【创新采购】采购人对重大研发项目可以采用创新采购。采购人在采购活动开始前,应当明确拟采购创新产品的主要功能或者绩效目标、最高研发和创新产品购买成本以及最低质量标准,通过合理的风险分担和收益激励机制,鼓励市场主体参与创新活动。

  创新采购中,采购人可以与供应商建立长期合作关系。

  comment:创新采购是本次修法新提出的概念,符合下列情形之一的,可以采用创新采购方式采购:

  (一)本部门所需货物含有重大技术突破,且能够推广运用的;

  (二)公共交通、智能化城市建设等网络化基础设施建设项目,通过应用新技术或者新理念,形成新的管理模式,能够明显提高绩效目标的。

  21、单一来源采购适用情形增加

  Government Procurement Law:第三十一条 符合下列情形之一的货物或者服务,可以依照本法采用单一来源方式采购:

  (一)只能从唯一供应商处采购的;

  (二)发生了不可预见的紧急情况不能从其他供应商处采购的;

  (三)必须保证原有采购项目一致性或者服务配套的要求,需要继续从原供应商处添购,且添购资金总额不超过原合同采购金额百分之十的。

  Opinion draft:六十七条符合下列情形之一的,可以采用单一来源方式采购:

  (一)因需要委托特定领域具有领先地位的机构、自然人提供服务,或者采购艺术作品、特定的文艺表演,或者必须采用不可替代的专利、专有技术,或者公共服务项目具有特殊要求等原因,只能从唯一供应商处采购的;

  (二)发生了不可预见的紧急情况不能从其他供应商处采购的;

  (三)因清算、破产或者拍卖等,仅在短时间内出现的特别有利条件下的采购的;

  (四)必须保证原有采购项目一致性或者服务配套的要求,需要继续从原供应商处添购,且添购资金总额不超过原合同采购金额百分之十的;

  comment:征求意见稿对单一来源应用的条件大幅度放宽,但是肯定会产生很多争议,比如“需要委托特定领域具有领先地位的机构或者自然人提供服务的”,这个领先地位怎么确定?

  22、框架协议拓展到工程建设领域

  《政府采购框架协议采购方式管理暂行办法》第三条:符合下列情形之一的,可以采用框架协议采购方式采购: 

  (一)集中采购目录以内品目,以及与之配套的必要耗材、配件等,属于小额零星采购的; 

  (二)集中采购目录以外,采购限额标准以上,本部门、本系统行政管理所需的法律、评估、会计、审计等鉴证咨询服务,属于小额零星采购的; 

  (三)集中采购目录以外,采购限额标准以上,为本部门、本系统以外的服务对象提供服务的政府购买服务项目,需要确定2家以上供应商由服务对象自主选择的; 

  Opinion draft:第六十九条:采购人对小额零星货物、工程和服务,可以采用框架协议采购,明确采购标的的技术、商务要求。根据框架协议授予的采购合同不得对该框架协议规定的条款作实质性修改。

  comment:对框架协议采购的适用范围扩大到了工程建设领域

  23、要求实现电子化采购

  Government Procurement Law:None

  Opinion draft:第五十五条【电子化政府采购】国家鼓励利用数据电文形式和电子信息网络开展政府采购活动,推动交易流程、公共服务、监督管理的透明化、规范化和智能化,推进电子证照应用,实现政府采购信息资源与其他公共服务平台互联共享。

  comment:以法律的形式要求实现采购电子化,特别是要和其他公共服务平台实现数据共享。

  24、允许使用电子凭证

  Government Procurement Law:第四十四条 政府采购合同应当采用书面形式。

  Opinion draft:第七十四条:政府采购合同应当采用书面形式。对于政府采购限额标准以下的采购活动,可以通过发票或者电子支付凭证替代书面合同。

  comment:电商采购时代需要更适合时代特点的合同形式。

  25、扩大质疑范围

  Government Procurement Law:第五十二条 供应商认为采购文件、采购过程和中标、成交结果使自己的权益受到损害的,可以在知道或者应知其权益受到损害之日起七个工作日内,以书面形式向采购人提出质疑。

  Opinion draft:【供应商质疑】供应商认为采购文件,采购过程,中标、成交、入围结果和合同变更、中止、解除使自己的权益受到损害的,可以在知道或者应当知道其权益受到损害之日起七个工作日内,以书面形式向采购人或其委托的采购代理机构提出质疑。

  comment:Opinion draft规将供应商质疑的范围扩大至“采购文件,采购过程,中标、成交、入围结果和合同变更、中止、解除”,覆盖了供应商可能遇到的各种情况,避免了遭遇不公但是无法质疑的尴尬。