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The statistical bulletin on the development of China’s health undertakings in 2021 was released

On July 12, the official website of the National Health Commission released the”statistical bulletin of China’s health development in 2021″ (hereinafter referred to as the”bulletin”).

The communique shows that the health status of Chinese residents continues to improve:in 2021, the average life expectancy of Chinese residents increased from 77.93 years in 2020 to 78.2 years in 2021, the maternal mortality rate decreased from 16.9/100000 to 16.1/100000, and the infant mortality rate decreased from 5.4 ‰ to 5.0 ‰.

The bulletin combed nine aspects:health resources, medical services, grass-roots health services, traditional Chinese medicine services, patient medical expenses, disease control and public health, maternal and child health and healthy aging, food safety and health supervision, population and family development. The”family wealth” of health undertakings is more solid, people’s health protection is more powerful, and various indicators continue to be optimized, showing the overall development trend of”two increases, one stability and multiple progress”.

The following is the full text:

Statistical bulletin of China’s health development in 2021

In 2021, the national health system will conscientiously implement the decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, coordinate the epidemic prevention and control and health work, and constantly promote the high-quality development of health undertakings. The average life expectancy of residents increased from 77.93 years in 2020 to 78.2 years in 2021, the maternal mortality rate decreased from 16.9/100000 to 16.1/100000, and the infant mortality rate decreased from 5.4 ‰ to 5.0 ‰.

1、 Health resources

(1) Total number of medical and health institutions.At the end of 2021, there were 1030935 medical and health institutions nationwide, an increase of 8013 over the previous year. Among them, there are 36570 hospitals, 977790 grass-roots medical and health institutions, and 13276 professional public health institutions. Compared with the previous year, there were 1176 hospitals and 7754 grass-roots medical and health institutions. There are 10 types of national medical centers and national regional medical centers for children in China.

Among the hospitals, there are 11804 public hospitals and 24766 private hospitals. Hospitals are divided into 3275 level III hospitals (including 1651 level III class A hospitals), 10848 level II hospitals, 12649 level I hospitals and 9798 non rated hospitals (see Table 1).

Hospitals are divided into 21909 hospitals with less than 100 beds, 5412 hospitals with 100 ~ 199 beds, 5017 hospitals with 200 ~ 499 beds, 2068 hospitals with 500 ~ 799 beds, and 2164 hospitals with 800 or more beds.

Among the grassroots medical and health institutions, there are 36160 community health service centers (stations) (including 10122 community health service centers and 26038 community health service stations), 34943 township health centers, 271056 clinics and infirmaries, and 599292 village clinics.

Among the professional public health institutions, there are 3376 centers for disease prevention and control, including 31 at the provincial level, 410 at the prefecture (city) level and 2755 at the county (District, county-level city) level. There are 3010 health supervision institutions, including 25 at the provincial level, 315 at the prefecture (city) level and 2487 at the county (District, county-level city) level. There are 3032 maternal and child health care institutions, including 26 at the provincial level, 377 at the prefecture (city) level, and 2554 at the county (District, county-level city) level.

(2) Number of beds.By the end of 2021, there were 9.448 million beds in medical and health institutions across the country, including 7.413 million beds in hospitals (78.5%), 1.712 million beds in grass-roots medical and health institutions (18.1%), and 302000 beds in professional public health institutions (3.2%). Among hospitals, public hospitals accounted for 70.2%and private hospitals accounted for 29.8%. Compared with the previous year, the number of beds increased by 348000, including 281000 hospital beds (116000 public hospitals and 166000 private hospitals), 63000 grass-roots medical and health institutions and 6000 professional public health institutions. The number of beds in medical and health institutions per 1000 people will increase from 6.46 in 2020 to 6.70 in 2021.

(3) Total number of health personnel.At the end of 2021, the total number of health workers nationwide was 13.983 million, an increase of 508000 over the previous year (an increase of 3.8%).

At the end of 2021, there were 11.242 million health technicians in the total number of health personnel. Among the health technicians, there are 4.287 million licensed (Assistant) doctors and 5.018 million registered nurses. Compared with the previous year, the number of health technicians increased by 564000 (an increase of 5.3%) (see Table 2).

At the end of 2021, the distribution of health personnel institutions:8.478 million hospitals (60.6%), 4.432 million grass-roots medical and health institutions (31.7%), and 958000 professional public health institutions (6.9%).

In 2021, there will be 3.04 licensed (Assistant) doctors and 3.56 registered nurses per 1000 people; The number of general practitioners per 10000 population is 3.08, and the number of professional public health institutions per 10000 population is 6.79 (see Table 3).

(4) Total health costs.The total national health expenditure in 2021 is preliminarily estimated to be 7559.36 billion yuan, of which the government health expenditure is 2071.85 billion yuan, accounting for 27.4%; Social health expenditure was 3392.03 billion yuan, accounting for 44.9%; Personal health expenditure was 209.548 billion yuan, accounting for 27.7%. The total health cost per capita is 5348.1 yuan, and the total health cost accounts for 6.5%of GDP (see Table 4).

2、 Medical services

(1) Outpatient and inpatient volume.In 2021, the total number of diagnosis and treatment in medical and health institutions nationwide was 8.47 billion, an increase of 730million (an increase of 9.4%) over the previous year. In 2021, residents went to medical and health institutions for an average of 6.0 visits.

In the total diagnosis and treatment volume in 2021, 3.88 billion people in hospitals (45.8%), 4.25 billion people in grass-roots medical and health institutions (50.2%), and 340million people in other medical and health institutions (4.0%). Compared with the previous year, the number of hospital diagnosis and treatment increased by 560million, and the number of grass-roots medical and health institutions increased by 130million.

In 2021, 3.27 billion people were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals (accounting for 84.2%of the total number of people diagnosed and treated in hospitals), and 610million people were diagnosed and treated in private hospitals (accounting for 15.8%of the total number of people diagnosed and treated in hospitals) (see Table 5).

In 2021, 2.0 billion people were diagnosed and treated in township health centers and community health service centers (stations), an increase of 150million people over the previous year. The diagnosis and treatment volume of township health centers and community health service centers (stations) accounted for 23.6%of the total number of diagnosis and treatment, which decreased by 0.3 percentage points over the previous year.

In 2021, 247.26 million people were admitted to medical and health institutions nationwide, an increase of 17.13 million people (an increase of 7.4%) over the previous year, and the annual hospitalization rate of residents was 17.5%.

In 2021, there were 201.49 million hospital admissions (81.5%), 35.92 million primary medical and health institutions (14.5%), and 9.85 million other institutions (4.0%). Compared with the previous year, hospital admissions increased by 17.97 million, grass-roots medical and health institutions decreased by 1.15 million, and other medical institutions increased by 320000.

In 2021, 164.04 million people were admitted to public hospitals (accounting for 81.4%of the total hospital admissions), and 37.45 million people were admitted to private hospitals (accounting for 18.6%of the total hospital admissions) (see Table 5).

(2) Hospital physician workload.In 2021, hospital doctors were responsible for 6.5 person times of diagnosis and treatment and 2.2 bed days of hospitalization per day, of which, public hospital doctors were responsible for 7.0 person times of diagnosis and treatment and 2.2 bed days of hospitalization per day (see Table 6).

(3) Hospital bed use.In 2021, the utilization rate of hospital beds in China was 74.6%, including 80.3%in public hospitals. Compared with the previous year, the utilization rate of hospital beds increased by 2.3 percentage points (including 2.9 percentage points in public hospitals). In 2021, the average length of stay of hospital discharges was 9.2 days (including 9.0 days in public hospitals). Compared with the previous year, the average length of stay of hospital discharges decreased by 0.3 days (including 0.3 days in public hospitals) (see Table 7).

(4) Improve medical services.By the end of 2021, 54.5%of secondary and above public hospitals have carried out appointment diagnosis and treatment, 91.3%have carried out clinical pathway management, 64.6%have carried out telemedicine services, 87.6%have participated in the mutual recognition of peer examination results, and 92.0%have carried out high-quality nursing services.

(5) Blood security.In 2021, the number of unpaid blood donors in the whole year reached 16.745 million, and the blood collection volume reached 28.559 million units, an increase of 7.5%and 8.0%respectively compared with 2020. The blood donation rate per thousand people was 12.

3、 Primary health services

(1) Rural health.By the end of 2021, there were 17294 county-level (including county-level cities) hospitals, 1868 county-level (including county-level cities) maternal and child health care institutions, 1999 county-level (including county-level cities) centers for Disease Control and prevention, 1761 county-level (including county-level cities) health supervision institutions, and a total of 3.521 million health personnel in four types of county-level (including county-level cities) medical and health institutions.

By the end of 2021, a total of 35000 township hospitals were set up in 29600 townships across the country, with 1.417 million beds and 1.492 million health personnel (including 1.285 million health technicians). Compared with the previous year, the number of township health centers decreased by 819, the number of beds increased by 27000, and the number of personnel increased by 11000 (see Table 8).

By the end of 2021, there were 599000 village clinics in 490000 administrative villages across the country. There are 1.363 million people working in village clinics, including 476000 licensed (Assistant) doctors, 193000 registered nurses, 691000 people holding rural doctor certificates and health workers. Compared with the previous year, the number of village clinics decreased by 10000, and the number of licensed (Assistant) doctors increased by 11000 (see Table 9).

In 2021, 1.31 billion people were diagnosed and treated in county-level hospitals (including county-level cities), an increase of 150million people over the previous year; The number of hospitalizations was 83.718 million, an increase of 3.069 million over the previous year; The utilization rate of hospital beds was 72.3%, an increase of 0.7 percentage points over the previous year.

In 2021, 1.16 billion people were diagnosed and treated in township hospitals, an increase of 60million people over the previous year; The number of hospitalizations was 32.23 million, a decrease of 1.603 million over the previous year. In 2021, doctors were responsible for 8.9 person times of diagnosis and treatment and 1.2 bed days of hospitalization per day. The utilization rate of hospital beds was 48.2%, and the average hospital stay of discharged patients was 6.6 days. Compared with the previous year, the average daily number of doctors in township health centers responsible for diagnosis and treatment increased by 0.4 person times, the average daily number of inpatient beds decreased by 0.1 bed days, the utilization rate of hospital beds decreased by 2.2 percentage points, and the average length of stay remained unchanged.

In 2021, 1.34 billion people were diagnosed and treated in village clinics, a decrease of 90million people over the previous year, with an average annual diagnosis and treatment volume of 2239 people in each village clinic.

(2) Community health.By the end of 2021, 36160 community health service centers (stations) have been established nationwide, including 10122 community health service centers and 26038 community health service stations. Compared with the previous year, there were 296 community health service centers and 499 community health service stations. There are 555000 people in community health service centers, with an average of 55 people in each center; There are 128000 people in community health service stations, with an average of 5 people per station. The number of personnel in community health service centers (stations) increased by 35000 over the previous year, an increase of 5.4%.

In 2021, 700million people were diagnosed and treated in community health service centers nationwide, and 3.193 million people were hospitalized; The average annual diagnosis and treatment volume of each center is 69000 person times, and the annual admission volume is 315 person times; Doctors are responsible for 14.6 person times of diagnosis and treatment and 0.5 bed days of hospitalization per day. In 2021, 140million people were diagnosed and treated at community health service stations nationwide, with an average annual diagnosis and treatment volume of 5379 people per station, and 11.0 people were diagnosed and treated by doctors per day (see table 10).

(3) Basic public health services.The per capita financial subsidy standard for basic public health service projects increased from 74 yuan in 2020 to 79 yuan in 2021. In 2021, there were 119.412 million elderly people aged 65 and above who received health management in primary medical and health institutions, 109.384 million patients with hypertension who received health management, and 35.713 million patients with type 2 diabetes who received health management.

4、 Traditional Chinese medicine services

(1) Number of TCM institutions, beds and personnel.In 2021, the total number of traditional Chinese medicine medical and health institutions nationwide was 77336, an increase of 4981 over the previous year. Among them, there are 5715 hospitals of traditional Chinese medicine, 71583 outpatient departments and clinics of traditional Chinese medicine, and 38 research institutions of traditional Chinese medicine. Compared with the previous year, there were 233 TCM hospitals and 4753 TCM outpatient departments and clinics (see Table 11).

In 2021, there were 1.505 million beds in medical and health institutions of traditional Chinese medicine, including 1.197 million beds in hospitals of traditional Chinese medicine (79.5%). And above年比较,中医类医疗卫生机构床位增加7.2万张,其中:中医类医院床位增加4.9万张。

2021年,提供中医服务的社区卫生服务中心占同类机构的99.6%,社区卫生服务站占93.0%,乡镇卫生院占99.1%,村卫生室占79.9%(见表12)。

2021年,全国中医药卫生人员总数达88.4万人,比上年增加5.5万人(增长6.6%)。其中:中医类别执业(助理)医师73.2万人,中药师(士)13.6万人。两类人员较上年均有所增加(见表13)。

(二)中医医疗服务。2021年,全国中医类医疗卫生机构总诊疗人次12.0亿,比上年增加1.4亿人次(增长13.7%)。其中:中医类医院6.9亿人次(占57.3%),中医类门诊部及诊所2.0亿人次(占17.0%),非中医类医疗机构中医类临床科室3.1亿人次(占25.7%)。

2021年,全国中医类医疗卫生机构出院人次3800.2万,比上年增加296.0万人次(增长8.4%)。其中:中医类医院3151.9万人次(占82.9%),中医类门诊部0.8万人次,非中医类医疗卫生机构中医类临床科室647.5万人次(占17.0%)(见表14)。

五、病人医药费用

(一)医院病人医药费用。2021年,医院次均门诊费用329.2元,按当年价格比上年上涨1.5%,按可比价格上涨0.6%;次均住院费用11002.9元,按当年价格比上年上涨3.6%,按可比价格上涨2.7%。日均住院费用1191.7元(见表15)。

2021年,医院次均门诊药费(123.3元)占次均门诊费用的37.5%,比上年(39.1%)下降1.6个百分点;医院次均住院药费(2759.5元)占次均住院费用的25.1%,比上年(26.2%)下降1.1个百分点。

2021年各级公立医院中,三级医院次均门诊费用下降0.9%(当年价格,下同),次均住院费用下降1.1%(见表15)。

(二)基层医疗卫生机构病人医药费用。2021年,社区卫生服务中心次均门诊费用164.3元,按当年价格比上年下降1.0%,按可比价格下降1.8%;次均住院费用3649.9元,按当年价格比上年上涨2.5%,按可比价格上涨1.6%(见表16)。

2021年,社区卫生服务中心次均门诊药费(118.9元)占次均门诊费用的72.4%,比上年(75.3%)下降2.9个百分点;次均住院药费(1088.8元)占次均住院费用的29.8%,比上年(31.6%)下降1.8个百分点。

2021年,乡镇卫生院次均门诊费用87.5元,按当年价格比上年上涨3.3%,按可比价格上涨2.4%;次均住院费用2166.5元,按当年价格比上年上涨4.0%,按可比价格上涨3.1%。日均住院费用329.3元(见表16)。

2021年,乡镇卫生院次均门诊药费(51.5元)占次均门诊费用的58.9%,比上年(61.2%)下降2.3个百分点;次均住院药费(719.4元)占次均住院费用的33.2%,比上年(35.1%)下降1.9个百分点。

六、疾病控制与公共卫生

(一)新冠肺炎疫情防控。2021年,31个省(自治区、直辖市)和新疆生产建设兵团报告新冠肺炎确诊病例15243例,其中境外输入病例6866例,本土病例8377例;无症状感染者6265例,其中境外输入病例5047例,本土病例1218例。全年报告治愈出院病例12725例,其中境外输入病例6331例,本土病例6394;死亡病例2例。

进一步完善疫情防控政策体系,毫不动摇坚持“外防输入、内防反弹”总策略、“动态清零”总方针,坚持人、物、环境同防,修订印发85类重点场所、重点单位、重点人群疫情常态化防控相关防护指南,制修订《新型冠状病毒肺炎防控方案(第八版)》《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第八版 修订版)》等方案。

截至2021年12月31日,累计完成新冠病毒疫苗接种283533.2万剂次,完成全程接种的人数为121068.5万人;全国共有11937家医疗卫生机构提供新冠病毒核酸检测服务,总检测能力达到4168万份/天,核酸检测能力显著提高;全国共有新冠肺炎定点医院800余家。

(二)传染病报告发病和死亡。2021年,全国甲、乙类传染病报告发病272.7万例,报告死亡2.2万人。报告发病数居前5位的是病毒性肝炎、肺结核、梅毒、淋病和布鲁氏菌病,占甲乙类传染病报告发病总数的93.3%。报告死亡数居前五位的是艾滋病、肺结核、病毒性肝炎、狂犬病、流行性出血热,占甲乙类传染病报告死亡总数的99.7%(见表17)。

2021年,全国甲乙类传染病报告发病率为193.46/10万,死亡率为1.5733/10万。

2021年,全国11种丙类传染病共报告发病350.6万例,死亡19人。报告发病数居前5位的病种依次为手足口病、其他感染性腹泻病、流行性感冒、流行性腮腺炎和急性出血性结膜炎,占丙类传染病报告发病总数的99.9%。报告死亡数较多的病种依次为手足口病、其他感染性腹泻病和流行性感冒,占丙类传染病报告死亡总数的94.7%(见表18)。

2021年,全国丙类传染病报告发病率为248.71/10万,死亡率为0.0013/10万。

(三)血吸虫病防治。2021年底,全国血吸虫病流行县(市、区)451个;达到消除、传播阻断、传播控制的县(市、区)分别为339个、100个、12个;2021年,全国晚期血吸虫病病人29037人,比上年减少480人。

(四)地方病防治。2021年底,全国克山病病区县(市、区)数330个,已消除330个,现症病人0.4万人;大骨节病病区县(市、区)数379个,已消除379个,现症病人17.2万人;碘缺乏病县(市、区)数2799个,消除2799个。地方性氟中毒(饮水型)病区县(市、区)数1041个,控制953个,病区村(居委会)数73902个,8~12周岁氟斑牙病人29.8万人,氟骨症病人6.6万人;地方性氟中毒(燃煤污染型)病区县(市、区)数171个,控制数171个,8~12周岁氟斑牙病人5.5万人,氟骨症病人15.4万人。

(五)慢性病综合防治。落实慢性病综合防治策略与措施,创新慢性病防治工作模式。截至2021年底,建设488个国家级慢性病综合防控示范区,全国2855个县(市、区)启动了全民健康生活方式行动,在全国建立了605个死因监测点和2085个肿瘤登记点。2021年,在全国31个省(自治区、直辖市)和新疆生产建设兵团对311.6万高危人群开展食管癌、胃癌、肝癌等重点癌症早诊早治工作,心脑血管疾病筛查干预项目筛查155.9万人,儿童口腔疾病综合干预项目年度免费口腔检查484.4万人。

(六)严重精神障碍管理服务。各级卫生健康部门会同公安、民政、残联等部门,完善严重精神障碍管理服务网络。截至2021年底,在全国31个省(自治区、直辖市)和新疆生产建设兵团建立了严重精神障碍管理治疗服务网络,在精神卫生专业机构指导下,基层医务人员对633.1万例严重精神障碍患者进行定期随访管理并提供康复指导。

(七)重大疾病与健康危害因素控制。2021年,在全国所有县区开展城乡饮用水水质监测,共设置监测点13.5万个,采集27.0万份水样开展水质检测;在87个城市设置167个监测点,开展空气污染(雾霾)对人群健康影响监测;在132个城市设置公共场所监测点,对7240家公共场所开展健康危害因素监测。

2021年,在1606个县(市、区)的8710个学校,开展学生常见病监测,共监测273.6万人;在1683个县(市、区)的2307所幼儿园和6286所中小学校,开展儿童青少年近视监测,共监测373.9万人。

(八)职业病防治。截至2021年底,全国共有职业卫生技术服务机构1022家,放射卫生技术服务机构605家,化学品毒性鉴定中心23家,职业健康检查机构5067家,职业病诊断机构588家;中央转移地方资金建设671家尘肺病康复站(点),覆盖辖区内近17万名尘肺病患者,患者对康复服务满意度达96%。2021年全国共报告各类职业病新病例15407例,其中职业性尘肺病及其他呼吸系统疾病11877例(其中职业性尘肺病11809例),职业性耳鼻喉口腔疾病2123例,职业性传染病339例,职业性化学中毒567例,物理因素所致职业病283例,职业性皮肤病83例,职业性肿瘤79例,职业性眼病43例(含5例放射性白内障),职业性放射性疾病5例,其他职业病8例。

七、妇幼卫生与健康老龄化

(一)妇幼保健。2021年,孕产妇产前检查率97.6%,产后访视率96.0%。与上年比较,产前检查率和产后访视率均有提高(见表19)。2021年住院分娩率为99.9%(市100.0%,县99.9%),基本实现全部住院分娩。

2021年,3岁以下儿童系统管理率达92.8%,与上年基本持平;孕产妇系统管理率达92.9%,比上年略有提高(见表19)。

(二)5岁以下儿童死亡率。据全国妇幼健康监测,2021年,5岁以下儿童死亡率7.1‰,其中:城市4.1‰,农村8.5‰;婴儿死亡率5.0‰,其中:城市3.2‰,农村5.8‰。与上年相比,全国5岁以下儿童死亡率、婴儿死亡率均有不同程度下降(见表20)。

(三)孕产妇死亡率。据全国妇幼健康监测,2021年,全国孕产妇死亡率为16.1/10万,其中:城市15.4/10万,农村16.5/10万。与上年相比,全国孕产妇死亡率有所下降(见表20)。

(四)国家免费孕前优生检查项目。全国所有县(市、区)普遍开展免费孕前优生健康检查,为农村计划怀孕夫妇免费提供健康教育、健康检查、风险评估和咨询指导等孕前优生服务。2021年全国共为823万名计划怀孕夫妇提供免费检查,目标人群覆盖率平均达93.5%。筛查出的风险人群全部获得针对性的咨询指导和治疗转诊等服务,落实了孕前预防措施,有效降低了出生缺陷的发生风险。

(五)推进老年健康服务和医养结合。截至2021年底,全国设有国家老年疾病临床医学研究中心6个;设有老年医学科的二级及以上综合性医院4685个,建成老年友善医疗机构的综合性医院5290个、基层医疗卫生机构15431个,设有临终关怀(安宁疗护)科的医疗卫生机构1027个。全国医疗卫生机构与养老服务机构建立签约合作关系的达7.8万对;两证齐全(指具备医疗机构执业许可或备案,并进行养老机构备案)的医养结合机构共有6492家。联合工业和信息化部、民政部开展2021年智慧健康养老应用试点示范,确定35家示范企业、2个示范园区,45个示范街道(乡镇)、17个示范基地。

八、食品安全与卫生监督

(一)食品安全风险监测。根据各省(自治区、直辖市)及新疆生产建设兵团报告,截至2021年底,全国设置食品安全风险监测点2778个,对26大类11.3万份样品开展污染物及有害因素进行监测;在70478个医疗卫生机构开展食源性疾病监测,全国共报告食源性疾病暴发事件5493起,发病32334人,死亡117人。

(二)公共场所卫生监督。2021年,全国公共场所卫生被监督单位159.6万个,从业人员806.1万人。对公共场所进行监督检查184.2万户次,依法查处案件10.6万件。

(三)生活饮用水卫生监督。2021年,全国生活饮用水卫生(供水)被监督单位10.4万个,直接从事供、管水人员74.4万人。对生活饮用水卫生(供水)监督检查13.0万户次。全国涉及饮用水卫生安全产品被监督单位6346个,从业人员12.5万人。对涉及饮用水卫生安全产品进行监督检查7214户次。依法查处生活饮用水和涉及饮用水安全产品案件4079件。

(四)消毒产品和餐具饮具集中消毒卫生监督。2021年,全国消毒产品被监督单位10817个,从业人员21.2万人。消毒产品监督检查3.1万户次,抽检12673件,合格率为96.8%。依法查处案件2529件。2021年,全国餐具饮具集中消毒服务单位4018个,从业人员4.4万人。监督检查8797户次,依法查处案件1475件。

(五)学校卫生监督。2021年,全国被监督学校19.4万所,监督检查23.3万户次,查处案件7329件。

(六)职业卫生和放射卫生监督。截至2021年底,对职业健康检查、职业病诊断、放射卫生技术机构进行经常性监督6725户次,监督覆盖率75.2%。依法查处案件598件。放射诊疗被监督单位7.7万户,监督覆盖率77.6%,进行经常性监督8.6万户次,依法查处放射卫生案件7705件。

(七)医疗卫生、血液安全和传染病防治卫生监督。2021年,依法对医疗机构或医务人员作出卫生行政处罚4.2万件。行政处罚无证行医1.2万件。依法对采供血机构作出行政处罚57件。依法查处传染病防治案件7.9万件,其中依法作出卫生行政处罚案件7.9万件。

(八)妇幼健康监督。2021年,全国开展妇幼健康被监督单位2.0万个,妇幼健康被监督单位监督检查2.9万户次,依法查处案件816件。

(九)用人单位职业卫生和技术服务机构监督执法。2021年,全国监督检查用人单位20万户次,查处案件17308件。2021年,全国监督检查职业卫生技术服务机构1042户次,查处案件59件。

九、人口家庭发展

2021年出生人口1062万人。二孩占比为41.4%,三孩及以上占比为14.5%,出生人口性别比为110.9。2021年农村部分计划生育家庭奖励扶助制度受益1631.4万人;计划生育家庭特别扶助制度受益171.3万人。计划生育家庭奖励和扶助“三项制度”共投入资金240.8亿元,比上年增加16.8亿元;中央财政投入资金132.4亿元,比上年增加7.5亿元。

注解:

(1)医疗卫生机构包括医院、基层医疗卫生机构、专业公共卫生机构、其他机构。

(2)公立医院指经济类型为国有和集体办的医院(含政府办医院)。

(3)民营医院指公立医院以外的其他医院,包括联营、股份合作、私营、台港澳投资和外国投资等医院。

(4)基层医疗卫生机构包括社区卫生服务中心(站)、街道卫生院、乡镇卫生院、村卫生室、门诊部、诊所(医务室)。

(5)专业公共卫生机构包括疾病预防控制中心、专科疾病防治机构、妇幼保健机构、健康教育机构、急救中心(站)、采供血机构、卫生监督机构、计划生育技术服务机构。

(6)政府办医疗卫生机构指卫生、教育、民政、公安、司法、兵团等行政部门举办的医疗卫生机构。

(7)中医类医疗卫生机构包括中医、中西医结合、民族医的医院、门诊部、诊所及科研机构。

(8)卫生人员包括卫生技术人员、持乡村医生证的人员和卫生员、其他技术人员、管理人员、工勤技能人员。按在岗职工数统计,包括在编、合同制、返聘和临聘半年以上人员。

(9)卫生技术人员包括执业(助理)医师、注册护士、药师(士)、技师(士)、卫生监督员(含公务员中取得卫生监督员证书的人数)、其他卫生技术人员。

(10)执业(助理)医师指取得医师执业证书且实际从事临床工作的人员,不含取得医师执业证书但实际从事管理工作的人员。

(11)注册护士指取得注册护士证书且实际从事护理工作的人员,不含取得护士执业证书但实际从事管理工作的人员。

(12)每千人口卫生技术人员数、执业(助理)医师数、注册护士数、全科医生数、专业公共卫生机构人员数、医疗卫生机构床位数按常住人口计算。

(13)2021年居民人均预期寿命结果为初算数据,2020年为第七次人口普查数据。