Over the past two years, I have visited more than 100 enterprises, from cars and auto parts, from furniture to household appliances, from machine tools to agricultural machinery, and even some mold factories in Huangyan. My view is:
First, the made in China 2025 advocated by the government and the key projects of intelligent manufacturing among them are in the right direction, action is necessary, and it is the automatic and spontaneous behavior of some leading enterprises. The industrial policy is just to make good use of the situation.
The subject can pay attention to the projects of the Ministry of industry and information technology, such as the pilot demonstration project of intelligent manufacturing, the comprehensive standardization test and verification of intelligent manufacturing, the new model of intelligent manufacturing, the manufacturing demonstration (cultivation) champion enterprise, etc. you will find that all the enterprises selected for the project are the leading enterprises in various industries and regions, and have some characteristics:there is a certain space for industrial growth, the products belong to the industrial upgrading category encouraged by the state, and the operation is stable, The market share of products has reached a certain level, has a certain driving force in the industrial chain, and has a good foundation for informatization and automation.
Even without made in China 2025 and intelligent manufacturing, these enterprises, out of their own development, must accelerate the internal process of automation, digitization, networking and intelligence in order to maintain an advantageous position in the highly competitive domestic and foreign markets, so as to form a stronger core competitiveness. At the same time, these enterprises will actively promote the upgrading of upstream and downstream industrial chains. If they do not follow or fail to follow, they will be marginalized or even eliminated.
Why? Because after these advantageous enterprises develop to a certain scale, they will face not only the competition in the domestic market, but also the competition from international competitors.
Sany Heavy Industry, Zoomlion, XCMG, Liugong and other construction machinery enterprises, in addition to competing with each other behind closed doors, are facing strong enemies such as Komatsu and caterpillar in the international market. To eat well and eat well, they need to have similar or even stronger information and automation levels with these international enterprises in R & D, production, logistics, service and other links.
Therefore, not all enterprises have an urgent demand for intelligent manufacturing, but enterprises that have reached the top of the domestic industry will certainly invest in intelligent manufacturing. Without investment now, the dominant position may not be guaranteed in a few years.
In addition, it is difficult to find workers now and the cost is high. In this case, there is almost no room for turning around, which will be more difficult and expensive in the future. Therefore, automation and digitization have become one of the means to replace manpower. Visiting a factory in Beijing, there are 35 stations in a production line, which will be reduced to 30 in 2018, 20 by the end of 2019, and the number of manual stations will continue to be reduced in 2020. Automation equipment and robots are a little expensive, but the product quality is more stable, the work rhythm of the production line is faster, and the cost will be recovered in about two years.
Second, made in China 2025, intelligent manufacturing, industrial interconnection and so on are icing on the cake, not timely help, and can not quickly solve the problems of weak demand in the global economic environment.
Conversely, I have seen traditional workshop factories in Gansu, Zhejiang and Guangdong. The production scale is small, the business model is simple, the counterpart enterprises are stable, the market pattern is narrow, there is no technical advantage, there is no voice in the industrial chain, and there is no higher-level competition. It is nothing more than the profit space continuously squeezed and diluted under the high cost of materials and labor.
If such enterprises are passively led by large and medium-sized enterprises in the industrial chain, and the industrial chain cannot move, they will survive and naturally choose. Intelligent manufacturing is not attractive to such enterprises at all, because for these enterprises, the input of intelligent manufacturing can not afford, or the input-output ratio is too low, or even a waste of time. It is better to run more lists, drink more wine with your family and make prices.
Intelligent manufacturing cannot help such enterprises. What they need is cheaper materials and more lists, which are affected by the economic environment and industrial upgrading policies.
Industrial upgrading is not a joke. In fact, it is very cruel. Those who cannot keep up will be eliminated, and even some backward production capacity and products will leave China in the form of transfer. However, no one is willing to admit that their enterprises are backward production capacity.
Such problems exist in China, Japan, Germany and the United States. Traditional small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises that have no technological advantages and cannot support gradually withdraw. However, this has little to do with made in China 2025, industry 4.0 and intelligent manufacturing. It is a problem of insufficient driving force for global economic development and overall industrial upgrading.